The global economic crisis has been bad news for Argentina, but good news so far for Argentinian wine. Will the wine part of the story have a happy ending or, like so many Argentinian economic booms, turn eventually to bust?
Bad News and Good
The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that Argentina’s economy has been hard hit by the economic crisis. The economic forecast is gloomy (see below) with the only good news being that inflation, while still high, is falling.
Given rapidly declining business and consumer confidence, the government’s fiscal stimulus measures will have a limited effect, and we expect the economy to contract by 3% in 2009, before only a mild recovery in 2010.
Unofficially measured inflation will ease to 10-15% in 2009, as private demand falls. The official rate will end 2009 at 6.8%, with a similar rate in 2010.
The peso will continue to depreciate in 2009 owing to weaker foreign-exchange inflows, before the pace of depreciation slows in 2010. The current-account position will weaken in 2009-10.
The Argentinian wine economy situation is sunnier. The May 2009 issue of Wine Business Monthly includes two reports that paint a bright picture of Argentinian wine trends.
The first story is a competitive analysis of Argentina wine in the United States market. It reports that U.S. imports of Argentinian wine have risen dramatically in recent years, from 2.6 million cases in 2006 to 4.3 million in 2008. The total value of Argentinian wine in the U.S. rose from $75 million to $146 million in this period.
It is important to put this increase in perspective, however. Total Argentinian imports are roughly equal to the annual output of a single US winemaker, Washington State’s Chateau Ste. Michelle. So the Argentinian presence is rising, but from a modest base.
Unsurprisingly, Malbec is Argentina’s calling card in the U.S. market. Malbec’s share of Argentinian wine imports increased from 35% to 48% over 2006-2008 measured by volume and from 44% to 55% measured by dollar value. I was interested to learn that Argentina wine sales are rising at all price points, not just in the value brand segment as you might imagine. But value is still important. Argentinian wine prices are rising, but still relatively low. The article reports that the average FOB price has increased from $29 to $33 per standard 9-liter case.
In the same issue the results of the Nielsen company wine market survey for the period ending 2/7/2009 are reported. Argentinian table wine imports were up 40% by dollar value for most recent year. This compares to a 10 percent increase for Chile, one percent for Italy and a one percent decline for Australia. Overall growth in imported wines was 2.4 percent by dollar value for the most recent year.
The 40 % annual rise is spectacular, but Argentinian wines account for just 1.4 percent of U.S. domestic wine volume compared with two percent for Chile, nine percent for Australia, almost 10 percent for Italy. This shows that Argentina either has a lot of room to grow in the U.S. market, as optimists will perceive, or a lot of work to do to escape niche player status.
I think the Argentina producers were wise to focus on the U.S. wine market for their export surge. Although the European Union is more important to Argentina in other major export sectors, the U.S. is the target wine market, and that’s a good thing in this economic environment. EU wine consumption has long been in decline because of demographic and market shifts, for example, while wine sales have been rising in the U.S.
The recession is likely to depress wine sales growth in both the U.S. and the EU, but the impact will be less in the U.S., I believe, if only because I think the recession will be shorter here. My current thinking is that the U.S. economy will benefit from greater short term fiscal and monetary stimulus, compared with the EU, and more effective medium term structural adjustment. That said, the recession is and will be very severe.
Early U.S. evidence suggests that wine sales have actually continued to rise during in the first year of the recession, when measured by case volume, although the dollar value of those sales has declined as consumers trade down.
Opportunities and Threats
Reading the latest articles on WineSur, a noteworthy Argentinian industry website, it pretty clear that Argentina producers appreciate both the opportunities and threats inherent in the current situation. The opportunities — to establish a market presence built around good value and the rising popularity of Malbec — are significant. But I think it must be hard for Argentinians to see silver linings without looking around for associated dark clouds — their country has suffered repeatedly from the global market booms and busts.
Some of the threats are strictly economic. Argentinian producers are currently benefiting from a falling peso value relative to the US dollar, for example, which helps their wine hit market-friendly price points in the US. But the falling currency is in part a reflection of high domestic inflation rates, which ultimately lead to higher production costs. A lot will depend upon how the inflation (cost) and exchange rate (export price) factors balance out in the future.
Some of the threats relate more to the fickle nature of the wine market itself. Malbec and Argentina are nearly synonymous today, but this could change as other wine regions adopt their signature varietal. A recent visit to the Walla Walla AVA, for example, found many producers experimenting (successfully, I think) with Malbec. Argentina has the first mover advantage in Malbec and must capitalize on this because it will face more competition in the future. This happened to New Zealand (Sauvignon Blanc) and Australia (Shiraz) and I do not think Argentina will be different.
In exploiting its Malbec lead Argentina will need to strike another difficult balance, between establishing a useful “house style” that will build market identity and letting this deteriorate into a stylistic “monoculture” that soon bores consumers. It seems to me that Australian Shiraz is currently suffering from the “monoculture” curse, perhaps unfairly, while New Zealand still benefits from a popular “house style,” although I’m not sure how much longer it can ride the gooseberry wave, especially given the vast quantities of Sauvignon Blanc that need to be sold.
Argentina is at a crossroads at a critical moment and moving in the right direction. Count me cautiously optimistic regarding the future of Argentinian wine.
Update: Just hours after I posted this piece about Argentina the following item appeared on the Decanter.com website.
Argentine wine harvest down 25%
May 1, 2009 / Jimmy Langman
Due to climatic conditions, this year’s wine harvest in Argentina will be down 25% as compared to last year.
According to Argentina’s National Wine Institute, hail in some provinces, and overall higher temperatures in February and March, are factors in the lower production output this year.
The lower production this year has occurred despite Argentina having a 12% increase in land under cultivation for wine grapes.
Guillermo Garcia, president of the National Wine Institute, said: ‘If there had not been an international crisis, we would not have been able to provide wine to countries with developed markets.’
Garcia added that Argentine wine companies need to begin keeping more than three months of stock on hand to make up for such production shortfalls.
Exequiel Barros of the Mendoza-based Caucasia Wine Thinking consultancy told decanter.com that many Argentine wineries are worried about their ability to supply medium-priced wines but added: ‘We need to see how the international outlook develops this year before we can dare to make any projections.’
In Chile, wine growing areas that are not irrigated, such as Cauquenes in the Maule Valley, are predicting a similarly low harvest, with an estimated drop in production from 30 to 40% because of higher temperatures and low rainfall.
Most wineries in Chile, however, are reporting a good harvest. ‘The lack of rain has been good for this year’s harvest. But wineries in the far south, such as in the Bio Bio, may experience changes to quality because of the higher temperatures,’ said Edmundo Bordeu, professor of oenology at Chile’s Catholic University.