[This post is part of an occasional feature on extreme wines. Extreme wines? You know, the cheapest, the most expensive; the biggest producers, the smallest; the oldest, the newest and so forth.]
2009 is by most accounts the most expensive Bordeaux vintage on record. Quite an achievement during a global economic slowdown! Jancis Robinson quotes some amazing prices for the en primeur wines:
Le Pin €1,050
Cheval Blanc €700
Haut-Brion, Latour €600
Lafite, Margaux, Mouton €550
Other’s People’s Wine
These prices are per bottle — except that no real bottles exist yet. The 2009 vintage is still in barrel and will stay there for several more months. Since Bordeaux wines are almost always varietal blends — and since the blending won’t take place until the wine is bottled — it is fair to say that the people who are paying these big prices can’t be completely sure what they are buying. They base their purchases on … on what? On faith (in the winemakers), on trust (in the critics’ judgments) and, of course, on speculation, since much of the action at this stage is to lock up hot wines for profitable resale later.
John Maynard Keynes once compared speculators to people who bet on the results of the “people’s choice” beauty contests that were popular in his day. The trick wasn’t to pick out the most beautiful entrant, but rather to identify the one that other people would vote for. So making the bet was a matter of guessing what other people would think other people would do and playing the odds. That’s Bordeaux en primeur in a nutshell.
How did prices rise so high with the world economy in such a fragile state? There are many theories. Here are four.
(Another) Vintage of the Century
The first theory is quite simple. 2009 was an extraordinary year and the wines are (or will be) spectacular. Wine enthusiasts will forever regret it if they don’t purchase this vintage, even at high en primeur prices.
This theory is supported by the rave reviews of many wine critics. Perhaps it really is the vintage of the century in Bordeaux, although it must be said that vintages of the century seem to come around pretty frequently these days — their schedule is more like the World Cup than Haley’s Comet.
The China Theory
A second theory is that the high prices of these wines reflects the full emergence of Asia as a market for fine wine. I’m not sure what to make of all the chatter I heard during the en primeur tasting circus, but the scuttlebutt is that American buyers failed to show up in the usual numbers, but they were not missed because of the demand from China, both direct purchases and London houses buying for eventual Hong Kong resale.
One fact that supports this theory is the huge gap in prices between the top trophy wines and the rest of the Bordeaux market. It is said that Asian buyers want to purchase only the best, most famous wines (rather than looking for bargains or good value further down the list). I don’t know if this stereotype is true, but the stratification in price indicates a disproportionate demand for the top wines, which is consistent with the China theory.
Another article by Jancis Robinson suggests that the Bordeaux winemakers and their agents are using strategic techniques to try to boost prices, dividing them in tranches, for example, a popular practice in financial markets. Tranche is French for a slice and it is a word that moved from financial jargon to everyday use during the economic crisis, when we all learned how Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) were sold off in “slices” that allowed people to convince themselves that their sub-prime mortgage investments were safer than they turned out to be.
Bordeaux wine is sold in tranches, too, with the price of the first slice used to set the standard for the second. This year, Robinson reports, the first tranche was ridiculously small, creating leaving excess demand and therefore forcing more buyers to weigh in for the second tranche (or risk not getting any wine), which was priced at €100 per bottle more than slice #1 in some cases.
(Wine fact: Tranche is also a winery — and a good one — Tranche Cellars in Walla Walla.)
Cost-conscious wine drinkers can only hope that the Bordeaux merchants do not start reading the technical economics literature on auction theory, where they would likely find other ways to manipulate the market to squeeze out higher prices.
The No Theory Theory
A final theory is really no theory at all. It holds that the idea that Bordeaux 2009 (broadly defined) is the most expensive Bordeaux vintage ever is a misconception. There are about 8000 Bordeaux producers according to reports I’ve read recently and only about 400 of them take part in the en primeur market. The total production of “first wines” by these makers is surprisingly small. I think it is fair to say that 90 percent of the market’s recent attention is focused on less than 10% (by volume) of the wine produced in Bordeaux.
The prices of the top wines have gone through the roof, but what about the region as a whole? You don’t have to have a theory to appreciate the fact that the makers of ordinary Bordeaux wines do not share the status or benefits of the trophy wines and are probably feeling the pain of hard times like so many winemakers around the world.
Bordeaux 2009 might be extreme in two ways: most expensive and biggest gap between top and bottom!
Succintly put – I particularly like the speculator definition.
It is interesting to compare the prices for Sauternes in this vintage The vintage was, if possible, even better for Sauternes than for the red wines, certainly more consistent, and yet prices only went up by around 25% on 2008 prices compared to an average of around 75% for Pauillac.
Within Sauternes, however, the chateaux with connections of one sort or another to red wine producing chateaux (either through ownership or marketing ties) almost matched the red wine increases – Coutet, Suduiraut, Rieussec and d’Yquem spring to mind.
The peer pressure within Bordeaux is therefore another factor that has to be taken into consideration. It takes a brave soul to step outside the system but in Sauternes at least a few successfully did this in 2009 and sold most of their wine at reasonable prices – Raymond Lafon, Doisy Daene and Climens are the best examples.
Sounds like a winner takes all game – like major league sports, drug trafficking, and senior management. Those with historic name recognition take in all the money of newly rich buyers who lack the experience and/or confidence to bargain hunt for quality. I’m going with the China theory.